He believed that large-scale organizations such as factories and government departments were a characteristic of capitalist economies. The ideal type, according to Weber, is a tool used to identify the characteristics of social phenomena such as bureaucracies. Also it is complained by many people that the machine type of organizations are totally complex and time consuming, for instance, the 'red tape' still exist in most of the organizations in china, the official institution especially. Firstly give the introduction to ideal type bureaucracy; Secondly, by giving the relation between power and authority as well as studying three major kinds of authority,. Division of labor and work specialization are used to align employees with their organizational tasks.
Most organisations such as car manufacturing still practise the. Advancement within or between the levels of bureaucracies were based on achievement and competency rather than influence or favor, as in traditional hierarchies. The characteristics of a bureaucracy include: 1 A well-defined formal hierarchy and chain of command; 2 Management by rules and regulations; 3 Division of labor and work specialization; 4 Managers should maintain an impersonal relationship with employees; 5 Competence, not personality, is the basis for job appointment and 6 Formal written records. In dealing with people, total impersonal approach cannot be adopted because people have feelings, emotions and sentiments which affect decision. Unlike many other people, Max Weber believed that the ideal form of administration — especially in a government sector — was bureaucracy. Examples of bureaucracies in the public sector include the Social Security Administration, Environmental Protection Agency and public universities.
The bureaucrat derives his authority and legitimate command from technical skill and knowledge. An employee in the organisation, obeys the authority. He conceived of bureaucracy as an abstract system for rational solution of management problems without the frictions caused by human errors and emotions. Max Weber and Bureaucratic Theory Weber was born in Germany in 1864 and grew up during the time when industrialization was transforming government, business, and society. Introduction A bureaucracy is a large organization that is designed to achieve a common goal through a hierarchical organization.
And the rules and levels of authority are just too much. There is clear definition of authority and responsibility. Who should do what work and who should shoulder what responsibility is decided by this system. All were hierarchies with written rules and a specialized division of labor, where advancement was based on achievement, resulting in an efficient and impersonal organization. Weber noted six major principles. Management by rules Controlling by rules allows decisions made at high levels to be executed consistently by all lower levels. Bureaucracy provides opportunity for division of labour: Some of the modern organisations consist of lakhs and millions of members.
Hierarchy of Authority: Bureaucracy has its own hierarchy of statuses. Platoons may have squads that consist of individual soldiers. Political Neutrality: Officials of bureaucracy are expected to be very objective in the official discharge of business. The rules may, thus, become the objectives and objectives may become secondary. Based on the above six important characteristics, more effective decision-making and better results were aimed at. They exist in both the private sector and the public sector.
Individuals who hold higher positions will supervise and direct lower positions within the hierarchy. Another limitation is that all the organizations are too different to construct a universal theory of organization. Once a machine is found in an ill-mannered state there are one part cannot replace another, usually machines need specific parts to replace one another. Like Marx, he never visualised an emancipator struggle or revolution that would help them to become free from the shackles of bureaucracy. The bureaucratic form is so common that most people accept it as the normal way of organizing almost any endeavor. Here the right type of behaviour is to be encouraged and the wrong type is too regulated.
These principles and characteristics were widely received by both the public and private sectors, and the very basics of a bureaucratic system are actually based on these six principles proposed by Max Weber in his theory of bureaucracy. He has emphasised that bureaucratic type of power is the ideal one. Significance of Bureaucratic Organisation: Bureaucratic organisations have the following merits: 1. Organization by functional specialty Work is to be done by specialists, and people are organized into units based on the type of work they do or skills they have. They are expected to be politically neutral in their dealings.
Weber identified this authority as three types: Charismatic authority, where the rule can be accepted because the leader has some outstanding personal quality. Also to be discussed are the values that bureaucracy jeopardizes in public administration. He also realized that businesses were run by professional managers and that they were linked through economic relationships. This led to delayed decision-making, corruption and red tape. Power in bureaucracies is vested in position, not person, and authority travels through the levels of the hierarchy based on agreed-upon functions. Workers, offices and units should be categorically divided based on the quality and specialization of employees.