Conflict theorists have argued that Functionalists have in general overstated the extent to which societies are organised in the interests of all of societies' members and overstated also the useful contributions which existing social institutions make to the stability of societies and understated both the extent to which societies are organised primarily in the interests of privileged minorities and against the interests of the majority and the possible dysfunctions of exiting social institutions. This would also require that even those who do their job poorly are rewarded equally. Conspicuous consumption is a term that sociologists use to describe that we buy and use products because of the statement they make about our social position. Davis and Moore argue that the most difficult jobs in any society are the most necessary and require the highest rewards and compensation to sufficiently motivate individuals to fill them. However in other conflict- based approaches to social stratification such as Marxism, Weberianism and most variants of Feminism , it is argued that social conflict is central to the relationships between the dominant and the subservient social classes and that income inequalities derive largely from the powers of dominant social classes or groups to exploit subservient social class or groups. The functionalist perspective states that systems exist in society for good reasons. The division of labor works to maximize and efficiency.
National politicians take important decisions on behalf of their citizens; business leaders coordinate the production of useful goods and services and provide gainful employment while skilled non-manual workers contribute in various ways to the efficient operation of the private and public sectors of the economy. Tumin believed social stratification prevented qualified people from attempting to fill roles Tumin 1953. Nevertheless, the theory continues to inform important topics of sociological discussion, including for example the literatures on and social. The two factors which are major determinants of the magnitude of the rewards attached to positions are their functional importance for the society and the relative scarcity of qualified personnel. In recent years so-called neo-Functionalists have argued that although some of the arguments raised by original orthodox Functionalists are certainly open to criticisms it may nevertheless be legitimate to argue that the incomes of highly paid industrial and financial entrepreneurs and of skilled managers , administrators and professionals within the private and public sectors may to some extent reflect the functionality of their work combined with the relative scarcity of their skills and abilities.
It may be that Advanced Level Sociology students quite simply do not have the enough time to read such studies but in that case I hope that perhaps the reviews and video materials might prove useful. The ranking depends on consensual view of their position's importance. Inept progeny of rich tycoons took over companies while intelligent children of workers went uneducated. Instead societies might change and evolve gradually in response to changing social needs. The reason being, Western countries emphasise economic supremacy.
He believed that oppression and misery would eventually drive the working majority to come together and overthrow capitalism. Certain jobs, such as cleaning hallways or answering phones, do not require much skill. Marx argued that the bourgeoisie owners give proletariats workers just enough to survive, but ultimately the workers are exploited. Both the Marxism view and the functionalist view have their own totally different point of view. Marx saw workers experience deep alienation, isolation and misery resulting from powerless status levels Marx 1848.
Very similar arguments may be used to call into question the functional importance of some well paid non -manual workers in both the public and private sectors. A functionalist view of religion revolves around one… 1348 Words 6 Pages Social stratification refers to layers of inequality which society ranks categories of individuals in a hierarchy structure. Proletariats were the workers who performed the manual labor to produce goods. According to functionalism, different aspects of society exist because they serve a needed purpose. As we shall see Functionalists describe occupational differences in income and wealth as involving a hierarchy of a large number of slightly differentiated and non-antagonistic social strata rather than as involving a limited number of antagonistic social classes as in Marxist Class Theory and, to a lesser extent in Weberian Class Theory. Definition of Social Stratification Social stratification refers to a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy.
We shall have to wait and see what the responses to the report will be especially from those who supported the retention of the 50P tax rate. The system was closely related to property and political power with landownership being the key. A structural-functionalist view of gender inequality applies the division of labor to view predefined as complementary: women take care of the home while men provide for the family. Functionalists will examine the purpose of such high salaries, while conflict theorists will study the exorbitant salaries as an unfair distribution of money. Functional prerequisites may also refer to the factors that allow a society to maintain social order. The built-in system of social stratification groups people together.
Stratification and Interaction Social stratification is typically analyzed from a macro-level perspective, such as conflict theory and functionalism. The following three long and detailed reports involve some fairly complex economic analysis which certainly is not included within the A2 Sociology Specification. Functionalism and Marxism are both sociological perspectives that ask and state certain theories about society and the people that live within it. Consider social stratification from the symbolic interactionist perspective. The Marxist views of the education system are that there are conflicts because there is an inequality between the working class and the higher classes. Many conflict theorists draw on the work of Karl Marx. They argued that the role of the family was to maintain a functional society — social stability and consensus.
Summary Social stratification can be examined from different sociological perspectives—functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism. This means that age, sex and personality are not forms of social stratification as they are not dependent on family. This approach looks at society through a macro-level orientation and broadly focuses on the social structures that shape society as a whole. They argue that social stratification by income is inevitable in a free society because once income differentials are established which reflect the functional importance of different occupations limitations of talent within the overall population will prevent individuals from moving into functionally more important occupations and depressing the incomes of these occupations. Max Weber, also a conflict theorist, agreed with Marx that social stratification causes social conflict. The systems of stratification arise in response to two specific needs common to every human society.