Opportunities for soil science in a milieu of reduced funds. Subsequently, settlements put the land to irreversible non-productive use. To fill this knowledge gap, soil degradation simply means the decline in soil quality which comes about due to aspects such as improper land use, agriculture, and pasture, urban or industrial purposes. Deforestation contributes to global warming as decreased forest size puts carbon back into the environment. Desertification Control Bulletin, 22, 3.
A rupture in the surroundings provides for them a chance to start growing and spreading. Degradation leads to reduction in crop yield in the affected lands and a possible decline in cropping intensity. This eroded material carries several valuable nutrients along With it, which are lost forever. Fragility, extreme sensitivity to degradation processes, may refer to the whole land, a degradation process e. They are in a stable steady state condition with the new environment. Annual rate of soil loss into the sea through erosion is 5mm.
Water-logging: Soils become water-logged when the water balance of an area is disturbed because of excess recharge. Land reclamation The outcomes of soil erosion and quality decline are widely irreversible. Dehra Dunn: Indian Association of Soil and Water Conservationists. It was the rich topsoil and reckless, treeless expanses, promising easy plowing, sowing and reaping, which attracted them. Effects include land degradation, soil erosion and sterility, and a loss of biodiversity, with huge economic costs for nations where deserts are growing.
Response of maize and cassava to removal of surface soil from an Alfisol in Nigeria. These factors reduce the yield. The health of soil is a primary concern to farmers and the global community whose livelihoods depend on well managed agriculture that starts with the dirt beneath our feet. Thesis University of Khartoum, Khartoum, 1985. The world population is expected to reach nearly 10 billion people by 2050. There are various ways of looking at land degradation and its impact on the environment around it: A temporary or permanent decline in the productive capacity of the land. In the Sahel, the slash and burning of natural forests and bush lands in order to clear land for agriculture is considered one of the main causes of deforestation and vegetation removal that contributes significantly to desertification.
Expansion of the deserts is a prime example. Stratified sampling based on male and female-headed households was used for the selection of households for each of the selected kushets for the structured interviews and focus group discussions from April to June 2011. Arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid zones are characterized by, low and erratic rainfall that does not exceed 700mm per annum, periodic droughts, and different combinations of vegetational cover and soils. Severity Desertification Water erosion Wind erosion Low 14. Recurring droughts and land degradation are closely linked.
Some common terms used are soil degradation, land degradation, and desertification. Chemical components such as cadmium, asbestos, mercury, cyanide, arsenic, and chromium commonly found in pharmaceutical, pesticides, and fertilizer industrial wastes also have devastating effects on human health. Wetlands Ecology and Management 16: 183-188. The reality is that in drylands rainfall is fluctuating, and therefore good and bad years will continue to occur. In contrast, forest land was reduced by 4455 hectares between the same years and the rate of deforestation is found to be 0. Many of the reasons are related to societal perceptions of land and the values they place on land. It has also opened the means to contaminate both soil as well as moisture sources with the application of bio-chemicals and irrigation water.
Besides, climate change combined with human activities continues to worsen soil degradation. The masking effect of improved technology provides a false sense of security. There are important differences in management practices; in forestry modern harvesting machines apply heavy loads and, for reasons of cost, tend to be kept in operation throughout the year. Classification of Traditional Agroforestry Practices in Turkey. The resilience of a landscape can be increased or decreased through human interaction based upon different methods of land-use management.
It even interferes with the animals interactive food chains because the chemicals contaminate plants, and waters which are consumed by the animals. Loss of Arable Land Land is often transformed from a forest or other natural landscape, such as floodplains and wetlands, into a crop field or pasture. Some natural events such as landslides and may also degrade the nature of our environments. In: Evaluation for Sustainable Land Management in the Developing World, eds. Land properties Sisal yield Mg ha-1 Yield levels 2. The Mediterranean countries of North Africa are very highly prone to desertification. Landfills produce foul smell when burned and cause huge environmental degradation.
These impacts include compaction, loss of soil structure, nutrient degradation, and soil salinity. International Conference on Land Degradation and Desertification. Land, air, and pose long-term cumulative impacts on the quality of the natural environments in which they occur. Examples of dryland degradation include salinization and the loss of vegetation or water resources. Canadian Farm Economics, 20, 3—8.