What appears to happen in groups is that discussion leads to a significant shift in the position of the members to a more extreme position in the direction they were all already leaning. You might start out small and increase your request for favors as you go, such as in the foot in the door technique. As such, this bibliography will focus primarily on literature related to compliance, conformity, and obedience. Conformity is generally regarded as a passive form of influence in that members of the group do not actively attempt to influence others. Normative social influence goal of affiliation Humans are fundamentally motivated by the need to belong—the need for social approval through the maintenance of meaningful.
Major empirical findings Solomon Asch line experiments An example of the line test given to experiment participants. Compliance is simply requesting someone to do something and they comply. It is generally distinguished from obedience behavior influenced by authority figures and conformity behavior intended to match that of a social majority. In doing so, they utilize premises claims to support their conclusion opinion. If the participant still wished to stop after all the verbal prods, the experiment ended.
Today those conclusions are questionable, with reanalysis suggesting participants were acting in part because of authority, but also in part because they thought they were contributing to the greater good. Nevertheless, a review by Saks 1978 suggested that if the technique is tuned carefully, people can even be induced to act as donors for organ and tissue transplants. Understanding behavior in the Milgram obedience experiment: The role of personality, situations and their interactions. In doing so, they utilize premises claims to support their conclusion opinion. Here a person changes their public behaviour, the way they act, but not their private beliefs.
The experimenter E convinces the subject T to give what he believes are painful electric shocks to another subject, who is actually an actor L. Motivations Underlying Conformity Conformity may result from either subtle, unconscious influences or direct and overt social pressure. Identification Identification is the middle level of conformity. Compliance does not refer to an inner state of acceptance of the behavior performed nor does it refer to an attitude change; rather, it simply refers to acting in accordance with the request. We just take them because we are told to do so. In the Milgram experiment, the experimenter was in the same room as the participant, likely eliciting a more obedient response. The target may or may not recognize that he or she is being urged to act in a particular way.
When this is refused you make a more realistic request and ask for 10%. Conclusion Compliance refers to an implicit or explicit response to a request. Since there is reasonable evidence across a variety of studies that the foot-in-the-door technique actually works, what psychological process could account for it? The buyer is more likely to comply with this price change since he or she feels like a mental agreement to a contract has occurred. This book is best suited for senior students, scholars, and researchers. Regan 1971 showed that greater compliance was obtained from people who had previously received a favour than from those who had received none. Zimbardo's famous is a good example of people altering their behavior in order to fit into their expected roles. Arguments are produced when an individual gives a reason for thinking that a claim is true.
Surprisingly, many customers still go ahead with the deal. In The handbook of social psychology. In a Polish field experiment, Dolinski 2000 arranged for a young man to ask people in the city of Wroclaw for directions to Zubrzyckiego Street. A group of mildly racist people may become viciously racist when together. Individuals can be coaxed into compliance in a number of ways, which we will discuss next. Buying something after being persuaded by a pushy salesperson or trying a particular brand of soda after seeing a commercial endorsement featuring your favorite celebrity are two examples of what is known as compliance.
Because of this, persuasion techniques are often used one-sidedly in immediate situations where one individual wishes to provoke a specific response from another individual. Although this is the case, all members do not go through the same training as some are not willing and able. They quickly found that the majority of humans are surprisingly obedient to authority. This need motivates people to engage in behavior that will induce the approval of their peers. Based in the roots of social influence, compliance is studied through the use of many different approaches, contexts, and techniques. Here a person changes their public behaviour and their private beliefs.
The experiment involved two people one a confederate would play the part of a student trying to remember different words that they had heard the other person who was the subject played the role of a teacher and gave him the test. Because there was no actual movement, the number that the group agreed on was a direct result of group conformity. For example, door-to-door salespeople quite often try a technique where they first ask a person for a small favor, after which they will ask for larger favors. Both men and women will conform to current norms in order to be accepted by society and avoid social rejection. Techniques of Compliance So, how do we get people to do things? In a different experiment, the psychologist Stanley Milgram wanted to see how far people would go to comply with requests given from perceived authority. While high levels of conformity can be detrimental, a certain amount of conformity is necessary and normal, and even essential for a community to function.
Suppose you shop around for a car and are confronted with the following chain of events. When she attends her book club meeting, the other members all disliked the book. Low-balling: Low-balling is a tactic frequently used by salesmen. In his experiment 1936 , participants were placed in a dark room and asked to stare at a small dot of light 15 feet away. It seems that once you are committed, you are hooked and reluctant to back out. Most participants paused and questioned the experiment at some point, but 26 out of 40 still administered the full shock, even after the confederate ceased to respond.
With that being said, people attempt to gain an accurate of their situation so they may respond accordingly. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 591-621. Compliance Compliance is the lowest level of conformity. In studying compliance, social psychologists aim to examine overt and subtle social influences and their relationship to compliance. After being assigned the roles of guards and prisoners, the psychological study spirals out of control. Obedience, in human behavior, is a form of social influence. Often they are put to us in a straightforward and clean manner, such as when a friend asks you to dinner, and nothing more is requested.