Case study research has a level of flexibility that is not readily offered by other qualitative approaches such as grounded theory or phenomenology. The integration of formal, statistical, and narrative methods in a single study, combined with the use of empirical methods for case selection and causal inference, demonstrated the versatility of case study design and made a significant contribution to its methodological evolution ibid. This method is very useful when it comes to market research on. Do observations and interpretations appear to have been triangulated? These include the intrinsic case, the instrumental case, and the collective instrumental case. To facilitate application of these principles, clear examples of research questions, study propositions and the different types of case study designs are provided To view the content in your browser, please or, alternately, you may the file to your hard drive.
There are two popular case study approaches in qualitative research. The procedure used in a case study means that the researcher provides a description of the behavior. He presented a structured process for undertaking case study research where formal propositions or theories guide the research process and are tested as part of the outcome, highlighting his realist approach to qualitative case study research. The researcher is able to delve deep and use a variety of data sources to get a complete picture. If they should need more information the researchers should ask such follow up questions that will help them collect more information.
Outcomes can lead to an in-depth understanding of behaviors, processes, practices, and relationships in context. The researcher then writes up the information from both sources above as the case study, and interprets the information. Case studies, on the other hand, are used to answer questions of how or why. Choose a method for collecting data. Her research interests are primary health care, public health and health systems strengthening. If the rich meaning that naming a qualitative methodology brings to the study is not recognized, a case study might appear to be inconsistent with the traditional approaches described by principal authors Creswell, ; Merriam, ; Stake, ; Yin,. Triangulation of sources was used to reveal as much depth as possible in the study by Nagar-Ron and Motzafi-Haller , while also enhancing confirmation validity.
Conclusions make note of social and cultural meanings and lessons learned, which might not have been uncovered using a different methodology. Sometimes, it may be more useful to break the data into smaller pieces. Our focus was on how the technology was being implemented. Stake's criteria have been referenced elsewhere, and was deemed the best available Creswell, ; Crowe et al. She holds a Bachelor of Arts in psychology from the University of Connecticut as well as a Master of Social Work from the Smith College School for Social Work. Commonly, there appeared to be confusion between case studies and case reports.
For example, Freud has been criticized for producing case studies in which the information was sometimes distorted to fit the particular theories about behavior e. Method Case Selection: Is the selection plan reasonable? This is similar to going to a library. There are images also that are used in this research study and the researchers analyze the context in which the images are used and draw inferences from them. Does this report have a conceptual structure i. In exploratory case studies, fieldwork and data collection may be undertaken prior to definition of the research questions and hypothesis.
Consider using quantitative methods, such as surveys, or mixed-method research strategies, such as combining qualitative and quantitative elements in research design, if you are concerned about the reliability and generality of your study. Discussion The findings of this study have highlighted a number of issues for researchers. This type of research method can last from a few days to a few years, as it involves in-depth observation and collecting data on those grounds. The use of multiple sources of data data triangulation has been advocated as a way of increasing the internal validity of a study i. Case studies are designed to suit the case and research question and published case studies demonstrate wide diversity in study design. This includes paradigm and theoretical perspectives that have influenced study design. Are its issues developed in a series and scholarly way? The case study method in social inquiry.
Descriptions focussed on the phenomena, rather than the case itself, and did not appear to study the case in its entirety. Case studies could also be used in an educational setting to explore the development of writing skills in a small group of high school freshmen taking a creative writing class. The illustrative 'grand round', 'case report' and 'case series' have a long tradition in clinical practice and research. Observational Method With the observational method sometimes referred to as field observation animal and human behavior is closely observed. Case studies can be intrinsic focusing on understanding that specific case , instrumental focusing on understanding the issue in a broader way or collective comparing multiple cases. The Polish peasant in Europe and America. An outline of the current definitions of case study and an overview of the issues proposed in the qualitative methodological literature are provided to set the scene for the review.
It is a type of research inquiry that examines a real life contemporary phenomenon. Here, we focus on the main stages of research activity when planning and undertaking a case study; the crucial stages are: defining the case; selecting the case s ; collecting and analysing the data; interpreting data; and reporting the findings. Five qualitative approaches to inquiry. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. Is the case study heuristic? There were inconsistencies in methodology and study design, which indicated that researchers were confused whether case study was a methodology or a method. In order to maintain the creativity and flexibility that is valued in this methodology, clearer descriptions of paradigm and theoretical position and methods should be provided so that study findings are not undervalued or discredited.
Article synopsis of case study research using Yin's tradition Gillard et al. Missing contextual boundaries suggests that the case might not be adequately defined. What is a case study and what is it good for? As a rough guide, it can take a seasoned researcher 8-10 hours to transcribe the recordings of an interview, which can generate roughly 20-30 pages of dialogues. In the 34 case studies reviewed, three described a theoretical framework informed by Stake , two by Yin , and three provided a mixed framework informed by various authors, which might have included both Yin and Stake. In this article, we explore the evolution of case study research, discuss methodological variations, and summarize key elements with the aim of providing guidance on the available options for researchers wanting to use case study in their work. Study design: Single intrinsic case study The case: Centred on the issue of recruitment of South Asian people with asthma.
Sex Reassignment at Birth: Long-term Review and Clinical Implications. This second list was the main criteria used to assess the methodological descriptions of the case studies reviewed. Promoting research integrity in a global environment. However, this is not a limitation of the method, but a strength. This research design aims to understand the cultures, challenges, motivations, and settings that occur. The first, proposed by Stake and Merriam , is situated in a social constructivist paradigm, whereas the second, by Yin , Flyvbjerg , and Eisenhardt , approaches case study from a post-positivist viewpoint. Is there a sense of story to the presentation? To do this we needed to develop a suitable framework, which used existing, established criteria for appraising qualitative case study research rigour Creswell, ; Merriam, ; Stake,.